The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment was formed on 9 September 1992 by the amalgamation of the Queen's Regiment and the Royal Hampshire Regiment and holds the earliest battle honour in the British Army (Tangier 1662–80). Through its ancestry via the Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) (2nd Regiment of Foot), the PWRR is the most senior English line infantry regiment. The modern regiment was named in honour of Diana, Princess of Wales.

The Regiment’s traditional recruiting area is London and South East, based on the county affiliations of its forbears; Kent (Queen’s Own Buffs, Sussex (Royal Sussex Regiment), Surrey (Queen’s Royal Surrey Regiment), Hampshire (Royal Hampshire Regiment) and London and Middlesex (Middlesex Regiment).  Upon its creation, the Princess Diana, The Princess of Wales was the Colonel-in-Chief and the Queen of Denmark was an Allied Colonels-in-Chief of the PWRR. When the Princess stepped back from public life she resigned, and the Queen of Denmark took up the mantle of Colonel-in-Chief and has retained that role ever since.  The link with the Royal House of Denmark originates in 1689 when the 3rd of Foot (later the Buffs) and Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Princess, later Queen Anne was made the Honorary Colonel.  This link lapsed until 1906 when on Kind Edward VII’s birthday, King Frederick VIII of Denmark was appointed Colonel in Chief of the Buffs.  Since then the reigning Danish monarch he been the Colonel or Allied Colonel in Chief to the Buffs and its successors.

The modern regiment has served in all theatres of war from the Northern Ireland to Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan.  Significantly Pte Beharry of the 1st battalion was awarded a Victoria Cross for his selfless actions in Iraq in 2004, with many other awards being made to soldiers of that battalion.  The regiment's 2nd Battalion were based in Shackleton Barracks, Northern Ireland and were the last resident battalion deployed in this role under Op BANNER.  This is significant as the Queens Regiment were one of the first to deploy to Northern Ireland under Op BANNER.

The regiment also has two Reserve Battalions based in the South East, 3 PWRR in Canterbury with sub-units across Kent and East Sussex; and 4 PWRR based in Redhill with sub units across Hampshire, Surrey and Middlesex.